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© 2014 Frank Dux    

Edward Snowden

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Edward Joseph "Ed" Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an>American>computer>Edward style="float:right; height:265px; margin:5px; width:220px" />>l who>leaked>classified information from the>National Security Agency (NSA), starting in June 2013. A former>system administrator for the>Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and a counterintelligence trainer at the>Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), he later worked for the private intelligence contractor>Dell inside an NSA outpost in>Japan. In March 2013, he joined the consulting firm>Booz Allen Hamilton inside the NSA center in>>[3] In June 2013, he came to international attention after disclosing to several media outlets thousands of classified documents that he acquired while working as an NSA>>[4] for>[5] and Booz Allen>[6] Snowden's leaked documents revealed numerous>global surveillance programs, many of them run by the NSA and the>Five Eyes with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments. A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a>hero,>[7]>[8]>[9] a>whistleblower,>[10]>[11]>[12]>[13] a>dissident,>[14] a>patriot,>[15]>[16]>[17] and a>>[18]>[19]>[20]>[21]>[22] His disclosures have fueled debates over>mass surveillance,>government secrecy, and the balance between>national security and>information privacy. Two court rulings since the initial leaks have split on the constitutionality of the NSA's bulk collection of telephone>[23]

On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew from Hawaii to>Hong Kong, where in early June he revealed numerous classified NSA documents to journalists>Glenn Greenwald and>Laura Poitras, both of whom he had summoned to Hong Kong for that purpose. On June 9, four days after the press first exposed a secret NSA program based on his leaks, Snowden made his identity public. On June 14 the>U.S. Department of Justice charged him with two counts of violating the>Espionage Act and theft of government property,>[24] punishable by up to 30 years in>[25] The>U.S. Department of State revoked his passport on June 22. According to>Russian President>Vladimir Putin, Snowden met with Russian diplomats while in Hong>[26] On June 23, Snowden—who later said he had been ticketed for onward travel via>Havana, Cuba—flew to Moscow's>Sheremetyevo International>[27]>ABC News reported that Snowden "could not enter Russia because he did not have a Russian visa and he could not travel to safe haven opportunities in Latin America because the United States had canceled his passport.">[28] Snowden remained in the airport transit zone for 39 days, during which time he applied for asylum in 21 countries. On August 1, 2013, Russian authorities granted him a one-year temporary>asylum. A year later, Russia issued Snowden a three-year residency permit allowing him to travel freely within the country and to go abroad for not longer than three>[29] He lives in an undisclosed location in Russia and is seeking asylum in the>European Union,>[30] although member state>Germany—which rejected his application in July 2013—announced in November 2014 that Snowden had not renewed his request and was not being considered for German>[31]

Global surveillance disclosures

The exact size of Snowden's disclosure is unknown,>[103] but Australian officials have estimated 15,000 or more>Australian intelligence>[104] and British officials estimate at least 58,000>British intelligence>[105] NSA Director>Keith Alexander initially estimated that Snowden had copied anywhere from 50,000 to 200,000 NSA>[106] Later estimates provided by U.S. officials were on the order of 1.7 million.